Accounting policies applied in the IFRS consolidated financial statements, 31 December 2015
Basic information on the company
Lemminkäinen Corporation is a public limited company established under the laws of Finland and domiciled in Helsinki. The company’s registered address is Salmisaarenaukio 2, 00180, Helsinki, Finland. Lemminkäinen Corporation is the parent company of the Group which shares are quoted on Nasdaq Helsinki Ltd. The parent company comprises together with its subsidiaries the Lemminkäinen Group (later “the Group” or “the company”). The Group produces infrastructure and building construction services mainly in Finland, other Nordic countries, Russia and the Baltic countries.
Basis of preparation
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and the IAS and IFRS standards as well as the SIC and IFRIC interpretations that were in force on 31 December 2015 have been observed in their preparation. The term ‘International Financial Reporting Standards’ refers to standards and their interpretations authorised for use in the European Union in accordance with the procedure prescribed in EU Regulation (EC) No. 1606/2002 as well as in the Finnish Accounting Act and the provisions laid down pursuant to the Act. The notes to the consolidated financial statements are also in accordance with Finnish accounting and corporate legislation supplemental to the IFRS regulations.
The preparation of financial statements requires company’s management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, income and expense. Actual results may differ from these estimates. The areas involving management judgements, estimates and assumption are presented in paragraph Management judgements and estimates
The financial statements have been prepared in euros and are presented in millions of euros in the annual report. Transactions are treated on the basis of original acquisition costs, with the exception of financial instruments, pension obligations, contingent considerations in acquisitions recognised as liability and options to redeem shares from non-controlling shareholders recognised as liability.
The Board of Directors approved the publication of the consolidated financial statements on 3 February 2016. Copies of the Lemminkäinen Corporation’s and the consolidated financial statements will be available on the company’s website at www.lemminkainen.com from week 9 of 2016 onwards. Printed copies of the consolidated financial statements can be ordered via e-mail , from week 10/2016 onwards.
Principles of consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include Lemminkäinen Corporation and those entities (subsidiaries) over which the Group has control. Lemminkäinen Corporation controls an entity when it has power over that entity and it is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. Subsidiaries acquired during the accounting period are included in the consolidated financial statements from the moment of the Group gains control, and divested subsidiaries until the time that the control is lost. Direct acquisition costs are recognised as other operating expenses in the income statement.
Intra-group shareholdings are eliminated by means of the acquisition method. The acquisition price comprises the consideration paid, the non-controlling interest in the acquiree, and the fair value of the previously held interest. The consideration paid is measured as the fair value of the assets given, liabilities assumed, and equity instruments issued by the Group. Any contingent consideration is measured at fair value at the time of acquisition and is included in the consideration paid. It is classified as either a liability or equity. Any contingent consideration classified as a liability is fair valued on the reporting date of each reporting period, and the resulting gains or losses are recognised through profit or loss. A contingent consideration classified as equity is not re-measured. Non-controlling interest in the acquiree is recognised on an acquisition-by-acquisition basis at either fair value or the amount corresponding to the share of the net assets of the acquiree held by non-controlling interests. The amount by which the sum of the consideration paid, the non-controlling interest in the acquiree, and the fair value of the previously held interest exceed the fair value of the acquired net assets is recognised as goodwill on the statement of financial position. If the total amount of consideration, the non-controlling interest in the acquiree, and the previously held interest is smaller than the fair value of the acquired subsidiary’s net assets, the difference is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income. Fixed price symmetrical put and call option in relation to acquisition of non-controlling interest is recognised at fair value in the financial liabilities. When this kind of option exists, the share of the non-controlling interest is not recognised in the consolidated statement of financial position.
The treatment of transactions with non-controlling interests is the same as that of transactions with the Group’s shareholders. When shares are acquired from non-controlling interests, the difference between the consideration paid and the carrying amount of the acquired net assets in the subsidiary is recognised in equity. Gains or losses from the sale of shares to non-controlling interests are also recognised in equity. When control or significant influence is lost, the remaining holding, if any, is measured at fair value and the change in the carrying amount is recognised through profit or loss. This fair value serves as the original carrying amount when the remaining holding is subsequently treated as an associate, a joint venture, or financial assets. In addition, the amounts concerning said company that were previously recognised in other comprehensive income are treated as if the Group had directly surrendered the related assets and liabilities. This means that amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income items are recycled to profit or loss.
Intra-group transactions; unrealised internal margins; and internal receivables, liabilities, and dividend payments are eliminated on consolidation. The distribution of profit for the financial year to the shareholders of the parent company and to the non-controlling interests is presented in the income statement. On the statement of financial position, the non-controlling interest is included in the total equity of the Group.
A joint arrangement is an arrangement of which two or more parties have joint control based on a contractual arrangement. Joint control exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control. Control is defined similarly as with subsidiaries.
A joint arrangement is classified as a joint operation or a joint venture. The participating parties of a joint operation have the rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. The company consolidates its share of the joint operation’s assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. The company’s consortiums in Finland are typically classified as joint operations.
The participating parties of a joint venture have the right to the joint arrangement’s net assets. The company consolidates joint ventures using the equity method. In equity method the Group’s share of the profit of the joint venture corresponding to its ownership stake is included in the consolidated income statement. Correspondingly, the Group’s share of the equity in the joint venture, including the goodwill arising from its acquisition, is recorded as the value of the Group’s holding in the joint venture on the consolidated statement of financial position. If the Group’s share of the losses of a joint venture exceeds the investment’s carrying amount, the investment is assigned a value of zero on the statement of financial position and the excess is disregarded, unless the Group has obligations related to the joint venture.
Unrealised gains arising in connection with business and fixed asset transactions between the Group and joint ventures are eliminated in proportion to the holding. The eliminated gain is recognised through profit or loss as it is realised. Any dividend received from the joint venture is eliminated from profit and from the acquisition value of the shares.
An associate is an entity over which the company has significant influence, but neither control nor joint control. If the company holds, directly or indirectly, 20 per cent or more of the voting power of the entity, it is presumed that the company has significant influence, unless it can be clearly demonstrated that this is not the case. The company consolidates associates using the equity method. The Equity method is described above in Joint arrangements paragraph.
The company changed its reporting structure on 1 January 2015. The earlier Infrastructure construction operating segment was divided into two new operating segments. The paving, mineral aggregates and earthworks businesses were transferred to the new Paving operating segment. Foundation engineering, civil engineering and rock engineering constitute the new Infra projects operating segment. As of 1 January 2015, the company’s operating segments are:
- Infra projects;
- Building construction, Finland and
- Russian operations.
The Group’s parent company, and other operations and assets unallocated to the segments, such as building construction in Sweden, an associated company engaged in the real estate rental business called Finavo Oy as well as companies managing individual plots and plants mainly outside Finland are reported as part of the Group’s other operations.
In addition, the company has changed its accounting policies for segment reporting as of 1 January 2015. In the future, The company will report the operating capital for the Group and each segment to the chief operating decision maker. The operating capital consists of property, plant and equipment, goodwill, other intangible assets and net working capital. The net working capital includes inventories, current trade and other receivables, provisions, current trade and other payables as well as income tax receivables and liabilities. However, the net working capital allocated to the segments excludes accrued personnel expenses and accrued interest, accruals related to derivatives as well as accrued direct and indirect taxes. These figures are reported separately as items unallocated to segments.
Reported segment information is based on internal segment reporting to the chief operating decision maker. Lemminkäinen Group’s chief operating decision maker is the President and CEO of Lemminkäinen Corporation. Internal segment reporting to the management covers net sales, depreciation, operating profit, and operating capital. The figures reported to the management are accurate to the nearest million euros.
Reportable segment information is prepared according to the accounting policies applied for the consolidated financial statements with the exception of discontinued operations, which are not specified in the segment information.
Intra-group transactions are priced at market prices. The cost plus method, wherein the price of a product or service is determined by the addition of an appropriate profit mark-up to the costs incurred, is the main transfer pricing method applied.
Presentation of the financial statements
The Group presents two separate income statements: the consolidated income statement and the consolidated statement of comprehensive income. The former includes the components of profit and loss and the latter starts with the profit for the financial period and presents the equity changes that are unrelated to the shareholders. The consolidated statement of changes in equity itemises the transactions with shareholders.
Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations
Non-current assets are classified (or disposal group) as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction and sale is highly probable. If the carrying amount of non-current assets will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use, they are measured at the lower of its carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. Depreciation stops/ceases from the moment the asset is classified as held for sale.
A discontinued operation is a component of an entity that either has been disposed of, or is classified as held for sale. A discontinued operation represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations, or is part of a co-ordinated plan to dispose of a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations. As well a subsidiary acquired exclusively with a view to resale is classified as a discontinued operation. The profit for the current and comparative period from discontinued operation is presented separately in the consolidated income statement.
Foreign currency items
The consolidated financial statements are presented in euros, which is also the functional and presentation currency of the Group’s parent company. The figures relating to the profit and financial position of Group companies are initially recognised in the functional currency of their operating environment. Every Group company’s functional currency is the primary currency of the economic environment in which the entity/company operates. Transactions in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Receivables and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the exchange rates prevailing on the reporting date. Exchange rate differences resulting from operating activities are recorded as adjustments to the corresponding items above the operating profit. Exchange rate gains and losses related to financing are recognised as finance income and costs.
Income statements of Group companies outside the Euro area are translated into euros in line with the average exchange rates for the accounting period. Items in the statement of financial position and in the statement of comprehensive income are translated into euros at the exchange rates prevailing on the reporting date. The translation differences resulting from the translation of the income statement and the statement of financial position at different exchange rates and from the elimination of the acquisition cost of subsidiaries outside the euro area are recognised in equity and the changes presented in the statement of comprehensive income. When foreign subsidiaries or businesses operating in foreign currency are divested, the translation difference accrued in equity is recognised through profit and loss as part of gains or losses.
Goodwill arising from the acquisition of subsidiaries outside the euro area as well as fair value adjustments to the carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities of the foreign subsidiaries are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign subsidiaries in question and are translated into euros at the exchange rates prevailing on the reporting date.
Financial assets are recognised on the settlement date. The Group classifies financial assets on initial recognition into the following categories: financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, available-for-sale financial assets, and loans and receivables. The category is determined in accordance with the purpose for which the financial asset has been acquired. Financial assets are derecognised once the Group has lost the contractual right to their cash flows or when it has substantially transferred their risks and rewards to a party outside the Group.
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss include all derivative contracts that do not meet the hedge accounting criteria. These derivative contracts include interest rate, foreign exchange and commodity derivatives. Derivatives are carried at fair values based on market prices and generally accepted valuation models. Changes in the fair values are recognised according to the nature of the derivative, either in the Group’s financial items or in other operating income or expenses.
Available-for-sale financial assets
Available-for-sale financial assets are financial assets other than derivative contracts, that are specifically designated as such or that are not classified in any other category. The Group’s available-for-sale financial assets include property, housing-company and other shares, as well as short-term money market investments. Available-for-sale financial assets are measured at fair value. Changes in the fair values are recognised in equity and presented in other comprehensive income. If a fair value cannot be reliably measured, the asset is recognised at cost less impairment, if any. The dividends from equity instruments included in available-for-sale financial assets and the interest from fixed-income instruments are recognised under financial items.
When financial assets classified as available-for-sale are sold or impairment is recognised, accumulated fair value changes recognised in equity are reclassified in profit or loss either under other operating income or expenses if the asset is an equity instrument, or under financial items if the asset is other than an equity instrument.
Loans and receivables
Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments, and are not quoted in an active market. Loans and receivables of the Group also include trade and other receivables on the statement of financial position. Loans and receivables are initially recognised at fair value added with transaction costs and are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash in hand, bank account balances and liquid money market investments with original maturities of three months or less.
Impairment of financial assets
On every reporting date, the Group assesses whether there is any objective evidence of impairment of the value of a financial asset or a group of financial assets. If there is objective evidence of impairment, the amount recoverable from the financial asset, which is the fair value of the asset, is estimated and the impairment loss is recognised wherever the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognised in the income statement. For example, when a debtor is in significant financial difficulties, any probable bankruptcy, delinquent payments, or payments that are more than 90 days overdue constitute evidence of possible impairment of the receivables.
Financial liabilities are initially recognised on the settlement date at fair value less transaction costs. Subsequently, all financial liabilities except derivative instruments are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include all derivative contracts that do not meet the hedge accounting criteria. These derivative contracts include interest rate, foreign exchange and commodity derivatives. Derivatives are carried at fair values based on market prices and generally accepted valuation models. Changes in the fair values are recognised according to the nature of the derivative, either in the Group’s financial items or in other operating income or expenses.
Fees paid on the establishment of loan facilities are capitalised as a pre-payment for liquidity services and amortised over the period of the facility to which it relates.
The Group has non-current and current financial liabilities, and they may be interest-bearing or non-interest-bearing. Financial liabilities are derecognised once the Group’s obligations in relation to liability is discharged, cancelled or expired.
Capitalisation of borrowing costs
The company capitalises borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset as part of the cost of that asset. A qualifying asset is one that takes a substantial period of time to complete for its intended purpose. A qualifying asset may be a fixed or movable asset, an inventory item or an intangible asset.
Capitalisation commences when the company first incurs expenditures for a qualifying asset giving rise to borrowing costs, and when it undertakes activities that are necessary for preparation of the asset for its intended use or for sale. Capitalisation is suspended when effective production is halted. Capitalisation ceases when all activities necessary to complete the asset for its intended use or sale have been carried out.
Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting
Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value on the statement of financial position on the date a derivative contract is entered into and subsequently re-measured at their fair value on each reporting date. The method of recognising the resulting gain or loss depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument, and if so, the nature of the item being hedged.
The Group applies cash flow hedge accounting for certain variable-rate loans. The Group documents at the inception of the transaction the relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as its risks management objectives and strategy. The effectiveness of the hedging relationship is assessed at inception and then at regular intervals at least on every reporting day. The gain or loss relating to the effective portion of the eligible derivatives are deferred in hedging reserve of equity and presented in other comprehensive income. The ineffective portion is recognised under financial items in the income statement. The cumulative change in fair value is transferred from equity and recognised in the income statement for the periods in which the hedged item affects the result.
When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, or the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, the hedge accounting is ceased. Any cumulative gain or loss from the hedging instrument remains in equity until the forecasted transaction is ultimately recognised in the income statement. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that was reported in equity is immediately transferred to the income statement within financial items.
Derivatives that are not eligible for hedge accounting are classified as current assets or liabilities. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives are recognised according to the nature of the derivative, either in other operating income and expenses or in the financial items.
Revenues from goods and services sold are recognised as net sales less indirect taxes and discounts. If the sales transaction contains both unconditional and contingent considerations, the company examines the meeting of revenue recognition criteria concerning both considerations separately.
Recognition of revenue from construction projects
When recognising revenue from construction projects, the company applies the percentage of-completion method if the project in question possesses the characteristics of construction contract and the project’s outcome can be estimated reliably. Construction contracts from which revenue is recognised with percentage of-completion method are specifically negotiated for the construction of an asset or a combination of assets. In the case of real estate construction, the buyer must also be able to decide on the primary structural or functional characteristics of the project before or during construction, in order for the real estate construction project to be recognised using the percentage-of-completion method. If the project’s outcome cannot be estimated reliably, revenue is recognised only to the extent of contract costs incurred that it is probable will be recoverable and costs are expensed in the period in which they incur.
The percentage-of-completion of a project is calculated as the ratio of actually incurred costs to estimated total costs. If it is likely that the total costs needed for completion of a project on the order book will exceed the total revenue receivable from the project, the anticipated loss is immediately recognised in its entirety as an expense.
When the costs incurred and recognised profits are greater than billing based on the project’s progress, the difference is presented under the statement of financial position item ‘trade and other receivables’ as project income receivables. If the costs incurred and recognised profits are less than the billing based on the project’s progress, the difference is presented in the statement of financial position item ‘accounts payable and other current liabilities’ as received advance payments or project expense liabilities.
In commercial building construction, the amount and probability of lease liability commitment is estimated as a project progresses, and it is included in the total cost estimate. A lease liability commitment is recorded as a liability when the construction project has been completed.,
There are long-term construction projects from which revenue is recognised with percentage-of-completion method in all segments of the company.
Completed contract method
Revenue from building construction projects, where the buyer does not have a contractual right to specify major structural elements of the building is recognised on completion in connection with delivery and in accordance with revenue recognition principles of the sale of manufactured goods. Projects from which revenue is recognised on completion are mostly Building Construction’s own housing and commercial building developments.
Recognition of revenue from services
Revenue recognition from services is based on the percentage-of-completion on the reporting date. The same revenue recognition principles are applied as for recognition of construction projects under the percentage-of-completion method. Service business exists in all segments of the company.
Recognition of revenue from the sale of manufactured goods
The company recognises revenue from the sale of manufactured goods at the time when the significant risks and rewards associated with product ownership are transferred to the buyer and the company no longer has any authority or control over the product. As a rule, this means the time when the product is handed over to the customer in accordance with the agreed terms and conditions of delivery. The fair value of revenue received, adjusted for indirect taxes, discounts given and exchange rate differences on foreign currency sales, is presented in the income statement as net sales. Primarily, there are sales of manufactured goods, such as mineral aggregates and asphalt mass, in the Paving segment.
Revenue recognition of life-cycle projects
In life-cycle projects, the operator – that is, the service provider – builds or improves the infrastructure used for service provision and provides operation services for said infrastructure. The company recognises revenue from construction and improvement services as well as from operation services on the basis of the percentage-of-completion.
Recognition of interest and dividends
Interest income is recognised over the period of the borrowing using the effective interest rate method. Dividends are recognised when the right to receive payment is established.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recognised on the statement of financial position at cost less depreciation and impairment. Property, plant and equipment are depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful economic lives. Land has indefinite useful economic life and is therefore not subject to depreciation. Estimated useful economic lives of property, plant and equipment are as follows:
- Buildings and structures 10–40 years
- Machinery and equipment 3–15 years
- Mineral aggregate deposits depreciation based on material depletion
- Other property, plant and equipment 10 years
An asset is subject to depreciation when it is available for use. Depreciation is charged over the period from the asset’s introduction to use until the end of its useful economic life. The residual value and economic life of assets are reviewed in connection with the preparation of each annual financial statements and, if necessary, these are adjusted to reflect any changes that may have occurred in the economic benefit expected. When all depreciation charges according to plan have been made, the residual value of the asset is zero. Depreciation of property, plant and equipment ceases when it is classified as held for sale.
Normal maintenance and repair costs are expensed as incurred. Significant improvements or additional investments are capitalised as part of the acquisition cost of the corresponding asset and depreciated over the remaining useful economic life of the asset to which they pertain, provided that it is likely that the company will derive future economic benefit from the asset. Gains on the sale of property, plant and equipment are presented in other operating income, and losses in other operating expenses. The company expenses the interest costs of the acquisitions of property, plant and equipment, unless the project meets the requirements for capitalisation of borrowing costs, in which case they are capitalised as part of the acquisition cost.
An intangible asset is recognised in the statement of financial position, when the cost of the asset can be measured reliably and it is probable that the expected economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the entity. Intangible assets are recognised at cost less amortisation and impairment in the statement of financial position. Amortisation of an intangible asset is recorded from the moment the asset is available for use. Amortisations are recorded until the end of the asset’s useful economic life. When all amortisations according to plan are made, the residual value of the asset is zero. Residual values and useful lives of the assets are reviewed at each financial year-end and, and adjusted, if necessary to reflect changes in the expected economic benefits.
Goodwill is the amount by which the acquisition cost exceeds the Group’s interest in the net fair value of its identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities at the time of acquisition. Possible non-controlling interest is measured either at fair value, or a value equal to the non-controlling owners’ proportions of the identifiable net assets of the acquiree. The valuation principle is determined separately for each acquisition.
Goodwill is not amortised. Instead, the possible impairment of goodwill is assessed at least annually. In the impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units. Goodwill is recognised on the financial statements at cost less impairment, if any, which is expensed on the income statement.
Other intangible assets
Other intangible assets include IT software licence fees as well as other licence fees and patents, including their advance payments. Other intangible assets are recorded at cost in the statement of financial position and are depreciated over their useful economic lives. The estimated useful lives of intangible assets are:
- IT software licence fees 5 years
- Other intangible assets 5–10 years
Other capitalised expenditure
Intangible assets include other capitalised expenditure that are not related to property, plant and equipment and have economic effects lasting longer than one year. Other capitalised expenditure creates future economic benefits over their useful economic lives. The benefits can be either income or cost savings.
Research and development expenditure
Research expenditure is expensed as incurred. Development expenditure is recognised on the statement of financial position when the intangible asset satisfies all the following criteria:
- research and development phases can be separated from each other
- it is technically feasible and it can be used or sold
- it will be completed and either used or sold
- it can be demonstrated that the asset will generate probable future economic benefit and that the company has the adequate resources to use or sell the intangible asset
- its development expenditure can be reliably measured
If the development expenditure does not satisfy all the above capitalisation criteria, it is expensed as incurred.
Government grants received from a public-sector source are recognised as income on the income statement at the same time that corresponding costs are expensed. Investment grants are deducted from the acquisition cost of the asset in question.
The carrying amounts of assets are assessed on each reporting date to determinate whether there are indications of impairment. If indications of impairment are found, the recoverable amount for the asset in question is assessed. The recoverable amount for an asset is either its fair value less costs to sell or, if higher, its value in use. In the measurement of value in use, expected future cash flows are discounted to their present value with discount rates that reflect the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. The Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is used as the discount factor. WACC takes into account the risk-free interest rate, the liquidity premium, the expected market rate of return, the industry’s beta value, country risk and the debt interest rate, including the interest rate margin. These components are weighted according to the fixed, average target capital structure of the sector. If it is not possible to calculate the recoverable cash flows for an individual asset, the recoverable amount for the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs is determined. An impairment loss is recognised on the income statement if the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount.
Goodwill is tested for impairment annually and whenever it may be concluded that there is a need to do so. Goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units in a consistent manner. In the impairment tests, the recoverable amount from the business of a cash-generating unit is derived from value-in-use calculations using cash flow forecasts based on comprehensive profitability plans confirmed by the management for a specific period as well as other justifiable estimates of the future outlook for the cash-generating unit and its business sector.
Impairment losses related to assets other than goodwill are reversed if the estimates used for determination of the recoverable amount of the asset have changed. The biggest permitted reversal equals the carrying amount of the asset less depreciation if impairment was not recognised in earlier years.
Leasing agreements wherein the group is the lessee
Leasing agreements that pertain to property, plant and equipment in which a substantial proportion of the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the Group are classified as finance leases. Finance leases are presented as assets in the statement of financial position at a value equal to the fair value of the leased item on the date of the lease’s commencement or, if lower, the present value of the minimum lease payments. Corresponding liability is presented in current and non-current interest bearing liabilities.
Assets leased under finance leases are depreciated over the useful economic life of the asset class or a shorter period as the life of the lease elapses. Possible impairment losses are recognised as reductions of the asset in question. Annual lease payments are divided into finance costs and debt amortisation instalments over the life of the lease so that the same interest rate is applied to the outstanding debt in every accounting period.
Leasing agreements in which the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are treated as operating leases. Payments under operating leases are treated as lease expenses, and they are expensed over the lease term. If the lease agreement is not expected to yield future economic benefits, the minimum lease payments under the contract are recognised as costs.
Inventories are measured at the lower of acquisition cost and net realisable value. The cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. The costs of selling are not included in the valuation of inventories at cost. Finance costs are included in the valuation of inventories at cost only when the particular project meets the requirements set for capitalisation of borrowing costs. The cost of materials and supplies is assigned by using the FIFO (first-in, first-out) principle. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in ordinary business operations less the estimated expenditure on product completion and sales. The carrying amounts of separate items in inventories are not decreased when the completed products in which the items belong to are expected to be sold at a price equalling or exceeding the combined acquisition costs of the separate items.
Treatment of own building developments
Expenditure committed to own building developments is capitalised on the statement of financial position as inventories. Liabilities and prepayments related to real estates under construction are included in current liabilities. The share of loans obtained that corresponds to the unsold proportion of flats that are still under construction as well as the proportion of loans for completed but unsold flats is included in current interest-bearing liabilities.
The pension schemes of Lemminkäinen’s Group companies are generally defined contribution plans. Defined contribution plan related payments are made to pension insurance companies, after which the Group has no other payment obligations. Payments in respect of defined contribution plans are expensed on the income statement in the accounting period in which they accrue. Other pension plans than defined contribution plans are defined benefit plans. In the case of a defined benefit plan, a pension liability is recognised to the extent that the plan gives rise to a pension obligation. If a defined benefit plan gives rise to a pension surplus, it is recognised in prepayments and accrued income on the statement of financial position.
The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method. The amount of pension obligation is calculated by deducting the fair value of the assets belonging to the pension scheme from the present value of the future pension obligations. The defined benefit pension costs consist of employee service based expenses and are booked to employee benefit expenses for the duration of the employee service. Net interests from defined benefit plans are booked to finance income or costs. The actuarial gains and losses are recognised through the statement of comprehensive income as a change in pension obligation or asset.
The Finnish group companies’ pension liability is determined by calculating the present values of estimated future cash flows, using Eurozone high investment grade companies’ bond interest rates as discount rates. The bonds used in determining the discount rates are in the same currency as pension benefits to be paid. The chosen discount rate reflects the estimated average moment of payment of the benefits.
Market values are primarily used for defining the fair value of plan assets. If a market value is not available, the fair value is estimated by discounting the expected future cash flows using the same discount rate that is used for defining the pension liability.
The Group has a share-based remuneration schemes. Share-based rewards are measured at fair value of Lemminkäinen share on the date of their being granted and expensed over their vesting and commitment periods. Costs that arise from the matching share system are expensed over their commitment periods. The expenses of other management remuneration are recognised in the income statement as personnel expenses as they arise.
Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets
A provision is made when the Group has a legal or constructive obligation based on some past event and it is likely that exemption from responsibility would either require a payment or would result in a loss, and that the amount of liability can be reliably measured. Provisions have not been discounted because of the minor effect of the discounting.
Warranty provisions cover after completion repair costs arising from warranty obligations. Warranty provisions are calculated on the basis of the level of warranty expenses actually incurred in earlier accounting periods and are recognised as a liability when a project is completed. If the Group will receive reimbursement from a subcontractor or material supplier on the basis of an agreement in respect of anticipated expenses, the future compensation is recognised when its receipt is considered secure.
Provision is made for onerous contracts when the amount of expenditure required by the agreement to fulfil the obligations exceeds the benefits that may be derived from it. The provisions made for onerous contracts do not include the losses from construction contracts.
Landscaping provision is made in respect of those sites where landscaping is a contractual obligation. The amount of the provision is based on the use of ground materials.
10-year liability provision arising from Finnish residential and commercial construction is determined by considering the class of 10-year liabilities as a whole. In this case, the likelihood of future economic loss for one project may be small, although the entire class of these obligations is considered to cause an outflow of resources from the company.
Lease liability commitment arises, when the company has a contractual obligation to obtain tenants for premises not yet leased in a commercial real estate under construction. The amount and probability of lease liability commitment is estimated as the project progresses. The lease liability commitment is recorded as provision when project has been completed.
The company recognises a provision for legal proceedings when the company’s management estimates that an outflow of financial resources is likely and the amount of the outflow can be reliably estimated.
Contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will only be confirmed by the occurrence of an uncertain future event that is not wholly within the control of the Group. In addition, a present obligation whose settlement is not likely to require and outflow of financial resources and an obligation whose amount cannot be measured with sufficient reliability are deemed contingent liabilities. No provision is made for contingent liability and it is presented in the notes of the financial statement.
Contingent assets usually arise from unplanned or other unexpected events that give rise to the possibility of an inflow of economic benefits to the entity. Contingent assets are not recognised in financial statements but it is presented in the notes of the financial statement.
Taxes calculated on the basis of the taxable profit or loss of Group companies for the accounting period, adjustments to taxes for earlier accounting periods, and change in the deferred tax liability and assets are recognised as income taxes on the consolidated income statement. The tax effect associated with items recognised directly in equity is recognised correspondingly in equity. The current tax charge is calculated using the tax rate enacted at the end of the reporting period.
The deferred tax is calculated from the temporary differences between taxation and accounting, with either the tax rate in force on the reporting date or a known tax rate that will come into force at a later date. A deferred tax liability is not recognised in respect of a temporary difference that arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability (other than from a business combination) and affects neither accounting income nor taxable profit at the time of transaction. A deferred tax asset is recognised only to the extent that it is likely that there will be future taxable profit against which the temporary difference may be utilised. The most significant temporary differences arise from accelerated depreciations for tax purposes, the revenue recognition practice for construction projects, internal gains from sales of fixed assets, finance leases, provisions, unused tax losses, measurements of fair value made in connection with acquisitions, and pension obligations.
Carry-forward tax losses are treated as a tax asset to the extent that it is likely that the company will be able to utilise them in the near future. A deferred tax liability is only recognised in respect of the undistributed profits of subsidiaries if payment of the tax is expected to be realised in the foreseeable future. The Group´s deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority.
Distribution of dividends
The proposed dividend by the Board of Directors to the annual general meeting is recognised as a deduction of distributable equity when it has been approved by the annual general meeting.
A hybrid bond is recognised in shareholders’ equity after equity belonging to shareholders. The bond holders do not have any rights equivalent to ordinary shareholders, and the bond does not dilute shareholders' ownership in the company. The company has no contractual obligation to repay the loan capital or the interest on the loan. The hybrid bond is initially recognised at fair value less transaction cost and subsequently the bond is measured at cost. If interest is paid to the hybrid bond, it is recognised directly into retained earnings.
Where the parent company of the Group or any group company purchases the parent company’s equity share capital (treasury shares), the consideration paid, including any directly attributable incremental costs is deducted from equity attributable to the company’s equity holders until the shares are cancelled. Where such ordinary shares are subsequently sold or reissued, any consideration received is included in the equity attributable to the company’s equity holders. No gain or loss is recognised in the income statement from purchasing, selling, issuance or cancellation of company’s equity instrument.
Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the profit attributable to equity holders of the parent company, less hybrid bond interest calculated on accrual basis and adjusted with tax effect, by the weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue during the year. Treasury shares held by the company and outstanding ordinary shares that are contingently returnable are excluded from the weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue. Diluted earnings per share is calculated by adjusting the weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue to assume the conversion of all dilutive potential ordinary shares.
Management judgement and estimates
The use of judgement and estimates
When preparing the financial statements, the company management has to make accounting estimates and assumptions about the future, as well as judgement-based decisions on the application of the accounting policies. These estimates and decisions affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses for the accounting period as well as the recognition of contingent items. The estimates and assumptions are based on historical knowledge and other justifiable assumptions which are considered to be reasonable at the time of preparing the financial statements. It is possible that actuals differ from the estimates used in the financial statements. Information on key aspects of the financial statements for which management judgement and estimates have been necessary is presented below.
Goodwill impairment testing
Goodwill is tested for potential impairment at least annually and whenever there are indications of impairment. The recoverable amount from the business of a cash-generating unit is derived from value-in-use calculations. These calculations require a significant use of estimates and assumptions. The cash flow forecasts are based on profitability plans approved by the company’s management for a certain period and on other justifiable estimates of the prospects for the business sector and the cash-generating unit. The key uncertainties in value-in-use calculations are the discount rate and the long-term growth assumption. A more detailed description of the estimates and assumptions concerning goodwill impairment testing is given in the notes to the financial statements.
Deferred tax assets
The management regularly estimates the recoverability of deferred tax assets. Deferred tax assets from tax losses are recorded to the amount that the management estimates, based on its profit forecasts, to be utilisable in the future, considering the expiration period of tax losses.
The management regularly estimates, in its best judgement, the potential obsolescence of inventories by comparing their cost with the net realisable value. The net realisable value is an entity-specific value which is based on the most reliable evidence available at the time. Materials and other supplies held for use in the production of inventories are not written-down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost.
The valuation of trade receivables involves an impairment risk. The management regularly estimates past-due trade receivables. The estimates are done according to the Group’s credit risk policy and are based on realised customer-specific credit losses, the company’s empirical knowledge and surveys.
Recognition of revenue from construction projects
Revenue recognition on the basis of the percentage of completion is based on estimates of the project’s expected revenue and costs as well as on the reliable determination of the progress of the project. In order to make a reliable estimate, the project’s costs are determined and itemised as accurately as possible. To determine revenue, the management has to estimate factors affecting the total revenue amount. If estimates of the project’s outcome change, recognised revenue and profit will be adjusted for the reporting period when the change first became known and could be estimated.
Recognition of provisions
Recognition of provisions involves probability- and amount-related estimates. The management estimates, based on its best knowledge, the probability of the realisation of an obligation that exists at the reporting date as well as the obligation’s amount. The estimate of the probability and amount of realised costs is based on previous similar events and experience-based knowledge.
New standards and interpretations
New standards, interpretations and annual improvements to IFRSs applied by the company in 2015
There are no IFRSs, IFRIC interpretations or annual improvements to IFRSs adopted by the company for the first time for the financial year beginning on 1 January 2015 that have had an impact on the company’s consolidated financial statements.
New standards, interpretations and annual improvements to IFRSs applied by the company after 2015
A number of new standards and amendments to standards and interpretations are effective for annual periods beginning after 1 January 2015, and have not been applied in preparing these consolidated financial statements. Of these standards, IFRS 15 and 16 might have a significant effect on the consolidated financial statements of the company.
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers was issued in May 2014. The effective date of the standard is a period beginning on or after 1 January 2018. Earlier application is permitted. An EU endorsement is required for the standard to become effective in the EU after which it is allowed to apply the standard. The standard specifies how and when to recognise revenue from contracts with customers. The company examines the effects of the standard to the consolidated financial statements.
IFRS 16 Leases was issued in January 2016. The effective date of the standard is a period beginning on or after 1 January 2019. Earlier application is permitted if IFRS 15 is applied. An EU endorsement is required for the standard to become effective in the EU after which it is allowed to apply the standard. The standard is applied on lessee’s financial statements. All leasing contracts will be capitalized except for low value assets and short term leases. The company will start analysing the effects of the standard to the consolidated financial statements during the coming financial year.
IFRS 9 Financial Instruments was issued in July 2014 and applies to an annual reporting period beginning on or after 1 January 2018. An EU endorsement is required for the standard to become effective in the EU. The standard will affect, among other things, the recognition of credit losses from financial instruments. According to the standard, credit losses are recorded based on expected losses and therefore they will be recorded earlier. In addition, the standard will affect the classification and measurement of financial assets and liabilities, but this will not have a material impact on the company's consolidated financial statements.
There are no other IFRSs, IFRIC interpretations or annual improvements to IFRSs that are not yet effective that would be expected to have a material impact on the company’s consolidated financial statements.