31 Provisions

EUR million Warranty provisions 10 year liability provisions Environmental provisions Lease commitment provisions Litigation provisions Other provisions Total 31 Dec 2015 Total 31 Dec 2014
Provisions, 1 Jan 11.2 8.6 2.9 3.5 12.3 0.0 38.6 27.2
Translation differences -0.1
-0.1


-0.2 -0.3
Increases in provisions 8.4 3.8 0.3 5.7 0.7
19.0 22.5
Expensed provisions -8.2 -2.7 -0.3 -6.4

-17.6 -10.0
Reversals of unused provisions -0.1




-0.1
Purchases and sales of subsidiaries -0.1




-0.1 -0.7
Provisions, 31 Dec 2015 11.2 9.7 2.8 2.9 13.0 0.0 39.6
Provisions, 31 Dec 2014 11.2 8.6 2.9 3.5 12.3 0.0
38.6

EUR million Warranty provisions 10 year liability provisions Environmental provisions Lease commitment provisions Litigation provisions Other provisions Total 31 Dec 2015 Total 31 Dec 2014
Provisions categorised as

Long-term 1.0 6.9 2.8 2.9 13.0 0.0 26.6 27.5

Short-term 10.2 2.9



13.1 11.1

11.2 9.7 2.8 2.9 13.0 0.0 39.6 38.6

Warranty provisions cover after completion repair costs arising from warranty obligations. Provisions related to housing construction are expected to be used within one year after the provision is made. Warranty provisions related to other construction projects are mainly used in 1–2 years after the provision is made.

10 year liability provision related to housing and commercial construction is determined as a whole for all the projects including such liabilities.

Environmental provisions are mainly related to a site's landscaping obligations. The expected time for using landscaping provisions depends on the use of the site, because in most cases the landscaping work starts after the use of the site ceases. In addition, environmental provisions cover other provisions related to environmental obligations.

Lease liability commitment arises, when the company has a contractual obligation to obtain tenants for premises not yet leased in a commercial real estate under construction. Provisions for lease commitments are expected to be used in 1–3 years after the provision is made.

Litigation provision is recognised for the asphalt cartel related claims for damages pending in the District Court of Helsinki, with 21 municipalities as plaintiffs. The court proceedings of these actions are expected to start in the District Court during 2016 at the earliest, and are expected to last 1–3 years. The amount of provision is estimated on the basis of the decisions given by Helsinki district court on 28th November 2013.